Article submissions must pass initial checks before qualifying entry into the peer review process. The criteria for initial checks is listed below. Please ensure your work meets all initial check requirements before submitting the article.
- We only accept text files or files in .doc or .docx format (such as from Microsoft Word or Open Office).
- We do not accept PDF submissions.
- Articles should be approximately 2,000–8,000 words in length. Please note that your abstract, references, figure captions, biography note, and tables are not counted toward the final word count.
Quality of the Text
- All submitted articles must read as a formal academic article. Word choice should not reflect a conversational or relaxed dialogue, be overly dependent on the use of bulleted lists, or rely heavily on the use of direct quotes. A formal academic article should articulate ideas in a writing style that is precise, logical, and professional.
- All factual statements must be supported by cited sources or research evidence.
- Articles must cite a minimum of five scholarly sources. These must be cited in-text (parenthetical citation) and be accompanied by a full citation in the reference list. In general, we consider a source to be scholarly if it is published in an edited book, a peer reviewed publication, an academic journal, or by a university press. Sources by contributing authors do not count toward this minimum. Citing multiple works by the same author(s) only qualifies as meeting one of the required five.
- Authors must ensure the accuracy of citations, quotations, diagrams, tables, and maps. All in-text citations must be cited in the reference list and all sources in the reference list must be cited within the article. Sources accessed online must include a DOI or URL.
Anonymous Peer Review
- Submissions must not appear on any publicly visible website to avoid compromising the validity of an anonymous review. If your article submission is publicly visible on any website, please remove the content before uploading your submission.
- Initial submissions should omit all author-identifying material for a double-anonymous peer review.
Multiple, Redundant, or Concurrent Submissions
- Concurrent submissions are not accepted. Submitting the same manuscript to more than one journal concurrently constitutes unethical publishing behavior and it is unacceptable. Manuscripts must only be peer reviewed by one journal at a time.
- We do not accept submissions of previously published works.
- No more than 30 percent of unoriginal text can be used by the author; these other places must be acknowledged and cited. The remaining 70 percent of the article must be unique and original to your current submission.
- Include an updated abstract and set of keywords.
- Please format your submissions according to the journal article template. This will be required upon final submission.
- Please follow the citation guidelines of the seventeenth edition of the Chicago Manual of Style. This will be required upon final submission.
- Please refrain from using any of the "citations and bibliography" tools or features in Microsoft Word. These are not editor-friendly software tools and they cause numerous problems during typesetting. Citations and references should be entered as regular text without the aid of any special features or tools.
- Please insert all images as .jpg files. Please keep image resolution below 300 DPI.
- In case of symbols, please only insert symbols using standard fonts (e.g., WingDings, Arial Unicode MS).
- Please avoid using advanced MS Word features such as automatic reference tools, drawing objects, automatic table of contents and table of indexes, bookmarks, background or font colors, highlighting, strike-through, embossing, or any other complex MS Word feature. MS Word footnotes/endnotes tools are one exception to this rule.
- Please ensure all titles in languages other than English in your reference list include an English translation that follows the title in the original language. This will be enforced upon final submission. Please see our Chicago Manual of Style Guide for formatting guidelines.